Category Archives: William R. Graham

December 12, 2017—Tactical or Strategic Warning?

December 12, 2017—Tactical or Strategic Warning?

“It is much easier after the event to sort the relevant from the irrelevant signals. After the event, of course, a signal is always crystal clear; we can now see what disaster it was signaling, since the disaster has occurred. But before the event it is obscure and pregnant with conflicting meanings… It is only human to want some unique and univocal signal, to want a guarantee from intelligence… We have to accept the fact of uncertainty and learn to live with it. No magic, in code or otherwise, will provide certainty. Our plans must work without it.” ~Roberta Wohlstetter, Policy Analyst and Historian in Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision, 1962 Read Full Story